Die Septuaginta und die Endgestalt des Alten Testaments
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In these figures, there is some prevalence of the proto-MT strand, though one observes a significant number of independent readings. Codex Leningradensis] are negligible, and in fact their nature resembles the internal differences between the medieval manuscripts themselves. Thus, the Qumran findings provide an important starting point for Pentateuchal exegesis and corroborate the legitimacy of critically using MT in Pentateuchal research.
On the one hand, we can have considerable confidence in the Hebrew text of the Pentateuch, as attested in the medieval manuscript of the Codex B 19A, which is the textual basis for most modern Bible editions. On the other hand, at the time, there was apparently not a fully stable text of the Pentateuch in terms of every single letter or word being fixed as part of a fully canonized Bible, as the differences between the scrolls show.
In terms of the composition of the Pentateuch, another insight that we can deduce from Qumran is that the Pentateuch was basically finished no later than the second century B. Some of its texts are certainly much older, but probably none of them are later.
One epigraphical piece relating to our concerns should be mentioned: There is a quasi-biblical text from biblical times, the silver amulets from Ketef Hinnom, which offer a text close to Numbers —26 and date anywhere between the seventh and the second century B. Socio-Historical Conditions for the Development of the Pentateuch. A very insightful book by Christopher Rollston brings together all of the relevant evidence regarding writing and literacy in ancient Israel.
The first question here is, who could actually read and write? Literacy was probably an elite phenomenon, and texts were circulated only among these circles, which were centered around the palace and the temple. Othmar Keel,  Matthieu Richelle  and others have argued for a continuous literary tradition in Jerusalem from the Bronze Age city state to the early Iron Age. While this perspective is probably not entirely wrong, it should not be overestimated. A case in point would be the new Ophel inscription from Jerusalem, which exhibits a rather rudimentary level of linguistic education.
A second question is, How did people write? Most of the inscriptions we have are on potsherds or stone, but this only what has survived. For obvious reasons, texts on stone or clay last much longer than those on papyrus or leather, so we cannot simply extrapolate from what archeologists have found to what people wrote on in general. In fact, there is only a single papyrus sheet left from the time of the monarchy, Mur.
In all likelihood, the writing material for texts such as those in the Pentateuch was papyrus or leather: Longer books needed to be written on leather, because papyrus sheets are fragile. The ink was composed of grime and metal. Scholars estimate that it took a professional scribe six months to copy a book the length of Genesis or Isaiah. In biblical times, copies of the books of the Bible were probably very few in number. For the second century B. This text quotes a letter from the Jerusalemites to the Jews in Alexandria that invites them to borrow a copy of those biblical books from Jerusalem that they do not possess.
In the same way Judas [Maccabaeus] also collected all the books that had been lost on account of the war that had come upon us, and they are in our possession. So if you have need of them, send people to get them for you. But when was the Pentateuch was composed?
It is helpful at the outset to determine a time span in which its texts were written. For the terminus a quo , an important clarification is needed. We can only determine the beginnings of the earliest written versions of a text. Many texts in the Bible, especially in the Pentateuch, go back to oral traditions that can be much older than their written counterparts. Therefore, the terminus a quo only determines the beginning of the written transmission of a text which, in turn, may have already been known as an oral tale or the like.https://momacomehr.cf
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Unlike many prophetic texts, Pentateuchal texts do not mention dates of authorship. One must therefore look for internal and external indicators in order to determine the date of their composition. We can safely determine a historical break in the ninth and eighth centuries B.
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By this point, a certain level of statehood and literacy was being achieved, and these two elements go together. That is, the more developed a state, the more bureaucracy and education are needed—especially in the area of writing. When one considers the number of inscriptions found in ancient Israel and Judah, the numbers clearly increase in the eighth century, and this increase should probably be interpreted as indicating a cultural development in ancient Israel and Judah.
This claim can be corroborated by looking at the texts that have been found and that can be dated to the tenth century B. The modesty of their content and writing style alike are easy to discern.
If we move forward about one century to the ninth century B. The first monumental stela from the region is the Mesha Stela, which is written in Moabite and which contains the first documented reference to Yhwh and Israel as we know them. Still another piece of evidence is the eighth-century Aramaic wall inscription from Tell Deir Allah,  which mentions the prophet Balaam that appears in Numbers 22— Along with others, Erhard Blum has recently argued convincingly for interpreting the site of Tell Deir Allah as a school, because of a late Hellenistic parallel to the building architecture of Trimithis in Egypt ca.
Those were my most formative years!!! I still benefit from them! My two sabbaticals produced two editions see below for the bibliographical info.
During my first sabbatical, I also wrote a volume in which I took four different perspectives on either reconstructing a different Hebrew Vorlage or defining the reasons for the rewriting of a text. I also had set myself the goal of writing an easy going little Esther commentary, divided the chapters into 16 weekends, and worked during these 16 weekends on the commentary—crazy! My writing also benefited from the doctoral seminars which I offered at Claremont and in which I dealt with text criticism.
I also suggested to the Septuaginta Unternehmen that a summer course ought to be created on text criticism.
13th International Septuagint Day: An Interview with Dr. Kristin De Troyer | Septuaginta &c.
And then they asked me to teach that summer school twice. Readers of this interview are encouraged to either come to Salzburg and attend the summer school or send wonderful juniors this way! In Claremont, California, in the doctoral seminars, it was easy to integrate work on the Greek text into the seminars.
Every doctoral student that attended the Claremont School of Theology or the Claremont Graduate University had to at least take one of these text critical seminars. It was impossible to graduate without it! In St. Andrews, Scotland, where I moved to after Claremont, I also offered one seminar in the MLitt program on text criticism—many of the students enrolled in that program are now doctoral students at excellent universities, integrating what they learned from me in their own work.
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I also was extremely happy that I received a Mercator Fellowship from DFG , thanks to my wonderful Septuagint colleagues in Wuppertal , and that fellowship allows me to teach a series of seminars and have brilliant conversations with excellent students at Wuppertal! Aside from these summer schools, I also make a point of making my Salzburg MA students, who have Hebrew and Greek, work with the Hebrew and Greek texts.
Especially in my Prophetic Literature class, but also in my class on Law texts, I make sure that students see the differences between the MT and the OG. That seminar is attended by some courageous MA students, some doctoral students, post doctoral collaborator s and the occasional Erasmus Haifa or Salzburg Syriac Institute student. We often do a verse per semester, if that much. Adams, W. London: T. Nelson and sons, Egypt Past and Present. London ; New York: T. Nelson, Addinall, Peter. Adler, William. Agmon, Mordecai. Agnon, Shmuel Yosef, and Michael Swirsky. Present at Sinai : The Giving of the Law.
Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, Aharoni, Y. Benno Rothenberg, Y. Aharoni, and A. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ahituv, Shmuel. Canaanite Toponyms in Ancient Egyptian Documents. Leiden: E. Brill, Ahlstrom, Gosta. Who Were the Israelites? Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, Ahn, Keumyoung. Ahuis, Ferdinand. Ahuviah, Abraham. Ahuviah, Jehudah. Akao, J. Alanati, Leonardo. Albrektson, B.
Ackroyd and B. Cambridge: University Press, Albright, W. The Name Yahweh. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Aldred, Cyril. London: A. Tiranti, Egypt to the End of the Old Kingdom.
London: Thames and Hudson, Akhenaten, King of Egypt. New York, N.