Music and the Origins of Language: Theories from the French Enlightenment
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Mill ,  Franz Boas ,  Walter Rauschenbusch .
Music and the origins of language: theories from the French Enlightenment
Kibbee ed. Retrieved 20 May Maurice and Walter Rauschenbusch PhD thesis. Montreal: McGill University. Retrieved 6 February Duden in German. Retrieved 20 October The Enlightenment: Voltaire to Kant. Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 9 July The Enlightenment: Voltaire to Kant , , p. Cambridge: , p. Herder and the Theory of Evolution. The Open Court 10 2 : Herder and the Philosophy and History of Science. Modern Humanities Research Association.
Evolution or Development? In Kurt Mueller-Vollmer. New York: Macmillan. Twayne Publishers. Walter de Gruyter — via Google Books. Penn State Press — via Google Books. Cambridge Core. Aufbau-Verlag — via Google Books. University of California Press — via Google Books. Age of Enlightenment.
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The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving , brewing and dyeing. In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education.
Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory. For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively. However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries.
It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. The work, which began publication in , was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 separate entries.
A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail and provided intellectuals across Europe with a high-quality survey of human knowledge. In d'Alembert's Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot , the work's goal to record the extent of human knowledge in the arts and sciences is outlined:. As a Reasoned Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades, it is to contain the general principles that form the basis of each science and each art, liberal or mechanical, and the most essential facts that make up the body and substance of each.
The massive work was arranged according to a "tree of knowledge". The tree reflected the marked division between the arts and sciences, which was largely a result of the rise of empiricism. Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge.
The Enlightenment's desacrilization of religion was pronounced in the tree's design, particularly where theology accounted for a peripheral branch, with black magic as a close neighbour. One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization. An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning.
The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education. Sir Isaac Newton's celebrated Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica was published in Latin and remained inaccessible to readers without education in the classics until Enlightenment writers began to translate and analyze the text in the vernacular. The first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular and with the entertainment of readers in mind, was Bernard de Fontenelle 's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works.
Charles Leadbetter's Astronomy was advertised as "a Work entirely New" that would include "short and easie [ sic ] Rules and Astronomical Tables". A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pemberton. Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class. Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children titled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature , which was published for many years after in eleven editions.
Most work on the Enlightenment emphasizes the ideals discussed by intellectuals, rather than the actual state of education at the time.terderfperdio.ga
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Leading educational theorists like England's John Locke and Switzerland's Jean Jacques Rousseau both emphasized the importance of shaping young minds early. By the late Enlightenment, there was a rising demand for a more universal approach to education, particularly after the American and French Revolutions.
The predominant educational psychology from the s onward, especially in northern European countries was associationism, the notion that the mind associates or dissociates ideas through repeated routines. In addition to being conducive to Enlightenment ideologies of liberty, self-determination and personal responsibility, it offered a practical theory of the mind that allowed teachers to transform longstanding forms of print and manuscript culture into effective graphic tools of learning for the lower and middle orders of society. These universities, especially Edinburgh, produced professors whose ideas had a significant impact on Britain's North American colonies and later the American Republic.
Within the natural sciences, Edinburgh's medical school also led the way in chemistry, anatomy and pharmacology.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712—1778)
In France, the major exception was the medical university at Montpellier. The history of Academies in France during the Enlightenment begins with the Academy of Science , founded in in Paris. It was closely tied to the French state, acting as an extension of a government seriously lacking in scientists. It helped promote and organize new disciplines and it trained new scientists. It also contributed to the enhancement of scientists' social status, considering them to be the "most useful of all citizens".
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Academies demonstrate the rising interest in science along with its increasing secularization, as evidenced by the small number of clerics who were members 13 percent. They perceived themselves as "interpreters of the sciences for the people". For example, it was with this in mind that academicians took it upon themselves to disprove the popular pseudo-science of mesmerism.
These academic contests were perhaps the most public of any institution during the Enlightenment. However, by roughly this subject matter had radically expanded and diversified, including "royal propaganda, philosophical battles, and critical ruminations on the social and political institutions of the Old Regime". Topics of public controversy were also discussed such as the theories of Newton and Descartes, the slave trade, women's education and justice in France.
More importantly, the contests were open to all and the enforced anonymity of each submission guaranteed that neither gender nor social rank would determine the judging.
Indeed, although the "vast majority" of participants belonged to the wealthier strata of society "the liberal arts, the clergy, the judiciary and the medical profession" , there were some cases of the popular classes submitting essays and even winning. Of a total of 2, prize competitions offered in France, women won 49—perhaps a small number by modern standards, but very significant in an age in which most women did not have any academic training. Indeed, the majority of the winning entries were for poetry competitions, a genre commonly stressed in women's education.
In England, the Royal Society of London also played a significant role in the public sphere and the spread of Enlightenment ideas. It was founded by a group of independent scientists and given a royal charter in This is where the Royal Society came into play: witnessing had to be a "collective act" and the Royal Society's assembly rooms were ideal locations for relatively public demonstrations. Two factors were taken into account: a witness's knowledge in the area and a witness's "moral constitution".
In other words, only civil society were considered for Boyle's public. It was the place in which philosophes got reunited and talked about old, actual or new ideas. Salons were the place where intellectual and enlightened ideas were built. Coffeehouses were especially important to the spread of knowledge during the Enlightenment because they created a unique environment in which people from many different walks of life gathered and shared ideas.