New Directions in International Advertising Research (Advances in International Marketing)

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Christodoulides, L. Kyrgidou, and D. Fotiades, and P. Fotiades, P. Christodoulides, and A. Katsikeas, C. Morgan, L. Leonidou, and T. Ngo, V. Jassen, L. Eteokleous, P. Leonidou, and C. Christodoulides, and D. Leonidou, B. Aykol, and T. Fotiadis, P. Christodoulides, C. Katsikeas, and S.

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Coudounaris, O. Kvasova, and P. Samiee, and V. Kirpalani and P. Barnes, B. Leonidou, N. Siu, and C. Samiee, S. Samiee, B. Aykol, and M. Leonidou, J.

Hadjimarcou, and I. Katsikeas, T. Palihawadana, and L. Leonidou, T. Fotiadis, and A. Kvasova, C. Leonidou, and S. Leonidou C. This issue was briefly addressed by participants at the NYU involvement conference. The majority or at least most vocal feeling seemed to be that at this time we should not try for a perfect definition of involvement. Rather, we should decide on a generally acceptable generic definition which will allow us to comfortably proceed to other matters. Since we are dealing with a hypothetical construct, we will probably never achieve agreement. The proposed generic definition was that involvement is a state of motivation, arousal or interest.

This state exists in a process. It is driven by current external variables the situation; the product; the communications and past internal variables enduring; ego; central values. Its consequents are types of searching, processing and decision making. We don't need more at this time. Let's call a ten year moratorium on definitions of involvement; let's go collect data on interesting aspects of involvement and then, in ten years, see if we can or need to devise a better definition.

What directions should we pursue?

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To ne the value of involvement is in recognizing that not all decisions are important and that there are low level learning processes to examine. At this moment there are many people doing consumer research who are implicitly assuming a high level of processing, learning and motivation.

Leave high involvement to others; those of us interested in involvement need to explore low involvement. Those who wish to pursue this avenue should start with Leavitt, Greenwald and Obermiller This paper proposes a hierarchy of responses; at the top are cognitive responses.

Next comes recall, then recognition and at the bottom there are physiologic responses. The top two require a high level of motivation in order for a subject to respond. The bottom two can be tapped even though the subject may have low involvement. We need to use measures which gain responses in a spite of low motivation. I would like to suggest some examples of such work. Singh Singh and Rothschild has developed methods to tap learning via recognition. These measures discriminate between stimuli and show that learning has occurred where recall shows no learning.

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In the physiologic areas there is exploratory work being done by Olson and Ray brain waves , Bagozzi heart rate , Cacioppo and Petty electromyogram , Mizerski multiple measures , Kroeber-Riel multiple measures and Rothschild, Reeves and Thorson brain waves among others. In each case the response can be obtained in a low involvement case without tampering with the level of involvement. Low involvement is important in developing advertising strategies.

Thorson is studying the psycholinguistic structure of messages and has found a relation between structure and learning. What type of structure is most appropriate when consumers have low levels of involvement? Similarly, Cacioppo and Petty show learning differences as a function of informational versus inferential message cues. What type of cues are most appropriate when consumers have low levels of involvement? In the promotions area Smith and Swinyard show that the attitude-behavior relation is lowest when involvement is low, but they also show that the relation is strengthened by product trial.

This supports the heavy use of promotions in low involvement cases. Peter and Nord and Rothschild and Gaidis have developed models of low involvement based on operant conditioning.

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These are potentially important in developing promotions strategies for low involvement cases. These are just a few examples; there are more. In each case the work deals with low involvement and shows that there are alternatives to the current models that imply high involvement.

These are examples of the direction that I feel involvement research should take. We do not ship to Military Addresses. Fast Shipping with Order Tracking. Seller Inventory RMX. More information about this seller Contact this seller. Condition: New. Seller Inventory mon Language: English. Brand new Book. Seller Inventory TNP Ships with Tracking Number! Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory n. New Book. Shipped from UK.